Freshwater Molluscan Shells


Abbott, R. Tucker, 1989. Compendium of Landshells.  American Malacologists, Incorporated.  240 pp.

Appleton, Chris C., 1996. Freshwater Molluscs of southern Africa. University of Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg. 64 pp.

Banarescu, Petru, 1990. Zoogeography of Fresh Waters, Vol. 1, General Distribution and Dispersal of Freshwater Animals. AULA - Verlag, Weisbaden.

Bogan, Arthur E., and Bouchet, P, 1998 Cementation in the freshwater bivalve family Corbiculidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia): a new genus and species from Lake Poso, Indonesia. Hydrobiologia v. 389: 131-139.

Bogan, Arthur E., 2008. Global diversity of freshwater mussels (Mollusca, Bivalvia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:139-147.

Bouchet, P., and Rocroi, J.-P. (Ed.) 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia: International Journal of Malacology, 47(1-2). ConchBooks: Hackenheim, Germany. ISBN 3-925919-72-4. 397 pp.

Brace, R. C. Observations on the Morphology and Behaviour of Chilina fluctuosa Gray (Chilinidae), with a Discussion on the Early Evolution of Pulmonate Gastropods. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B. 300, pp 463-491. Abstract online at

Brandt, R.A.M. 1974. The non-marine aquatic Mollusca of Thailand. Archiv für Molluskenkunde 105(1-4):i-iv + 423 pp.

Brown, Kenneth M. 1991. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In Ecology and classification of North American invertebrates. Edited by Thorp, J. H., and Covich, A. P. Academic Press, Inc.

Brusca, Richard C., and Brusca, G. J., 1990. Invertebrates. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass. 922 pp.

Burch, J. B., 1972. Freshwater Sphaeriacean clams (Mollusca: Pelecypoda) of North America. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency Biota of Freshwater Ecosystems Identification Manual No. 3. 31 pp.

Burch, J. B., 1982. Freshwater Snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of North America. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinatti, Ohio. 294 pp. Now online

Burch, J. B., 1975. Freshwater Unionacean clams (Mollusca: Pelecypoda) of North America. (Revised edition). Malacological Publications, 1975. 204 pp.

Chandler, Asa C., and Read, Clark P. 1961. Introduction to Parasitology. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 822 pp.

Damme, Dirk van. 1984. The Freshwater Mollusca of Northern Africa: Distribution, Biogeography, and Palaeoecology. Dordrecht, Neth., and Boston: W. Junk. Developments in Hydrobiology Series, no. 25.

Dillon, Robert T. Jr. 2000. The Ecology of Freshwater Molluscs. Cambridge University Press. 509 pp.

Emerson, William K., and Jacobson, Morris K. 1976. The American Museum of Natural History Guide to Shells. Alfred K. Knopf. 482 pp. Includes land and freshwater shells of the Atlantic coast region.

Halstead, B., and Landa, B. 1975. Golden Guide to Tropical Fish. Golden Press, New York. 160 pp. Page on freshwater snails includes five total species from five families, and has incorrect captions.

Hillis, D. M. and J. C. Patton. 1982. Morphological and electrophoretic evidence for two species of Corbicula (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae) in North America. American Midland Naturalist 108:74-80.

Howells, Robert G. 1996. The Tampico Pearlymussel (Cyrtonaias tampicoensis) SHADES OF THE OLD WEST. Available as internet article at

Iredale, T. (1943). A basic list of freshwater mollusca of Australia. Austr. Zool., 10: 188-230.

Liu Yueyin (1979) Economic Fauna of China (Freshwater Mollusks) Hyayu Center for Environmental services, Beijing. 134 pp. (In Chinese, Latin names in Roman characters.)

McMahon, Robert F. 1991. Mollusca: Bivalvia. In Ecology and classification of North American invertebrates. Edited by Thorp, J. H., and Covich, A. P. Academic Press, Inc.

McMichael, D. F., and I. D. Hiscock, 1958. A monograph of the freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Pelecypoda) of the Australian region. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research.

Meier-Brook, C. and Smith, B. J 1975. Glacidorbis Iredale 1943, a genus of freshwater prosobranchs with a Tasmanian-Southeast Australian-South Andean distribution. Archiv fur Molluskenkunde, 106: 191-198.

Nagel, K.-O., Badino, G. & Celebrano, G. (1998): Systematics of European naiades (Bivalvia: Margaritiferidae and Unionidae): a review and some new aspects.- Malacological Review - Supplement 7 (Bivalvia I): 83-104, Ann Arbor, Mich.

Oesch, Ronald D., 1984. Missouri Naiads; A Guide to the Mussels of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. 270 pp.

Ortmann, A. E., 1921. South American Naiades; a contribution to the knowledge of the freshwater mussels of South America. Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum, Vol. VIII no 3, pp 451 - 671. Online at

Parmalee, Paul W. 1967. The Fresh-Water Mussels of Illinois. Illinois State Museum Popular Science Series, vol.VIII. 108 pp.

Parmalee, P. W., and A. E. Bogan. 1998. The Freshwater Mussels of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 328 pp.

Pilsbry, H. A. 1911. Non-marine mollusca of Patagonia. Reports of the Princeton University Expedition to Patagonia, 1896-1899 vol. 3. pp 513-633 + 14 plates. Online at

Pilsbry, H. A, and Bequaert, J. 1927. The aquatic mollusks of the Belgian Congo. With a geographical and ecological account of Congo malacology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History Vol. LIII, Art. II, pp. 69-602. Online at

Ponder, W.F. (1986) Glacidorbidae (Glacidorbiacea : Basommatophora), a new family and superfamily of operculate freshwater gastropods. Journal Linnean Society of London, 87: 53-83.

Ponder, W. F. and Lindberg, D. R. 1997. Towards a phylogeny of gastropod molluscs: an analysis using morphological characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 119: 83-265.

Preston, H. B. 1915. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma: Mollusca (Freshwater Gastropoda and Pelecypoda). Today and Tomorrow's Printers and Publishers, New Delhi. 244 pp. (reprint)

Rogers, J.E., 1936 (reprinted with revised nomenclature 1951) The Shell Book Charles T. Branford Co., Boston. 502 pp.

Strong E. & Köhler F. (2009). "Morphological and molecular analysis of "Melania" jacqueti Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1906: from anonymous orphan to critical basal offshoot of the Semisulcospiridae (Gastropoda: Cerithioidea)". Zoologica Scripta 38(5): 483-502.

Turgeon, D.D., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, W.K. Emerson, W.G. Lyons, W.L. Prat, C.F.E. Roper, A. Sheltema, F.G. Thompson, and J.D. Williams, 1988. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 16. 277 pp.

Webb, Walter F. 1936. Handbook for Shell Collectors, Fourth Edition, Rochester, New York. 291 pp. Though outdated and badly organized, this edition contains some information on freshwater shells worldwide.

Webb, Walter F. 1942. United States Mollusca, First Edition, Rochester, New York. 220 pp. Similar to above, but covers many American species.

Wood, G.V, and Duke, S.D. 2001. Recovery of five Snake River snails in southern Idaho. Abstracts, second meeting of the Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Society, Pittsburgh, PA. March 2001. (PDF file) accessed May 20, 2001.

Zhadin, V. I. 1952. Mollusks of fresh and brackish waters of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. [Translation, 1965, by the Israel Program for Scientific Translations]

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